A complete solar system consist of the following three components
We install solar panels (PV Panels) on your roof that generate power when exposed to sunlight. Solar panel rails and fittings are used that fit under your roof tiles and are fixed to the roof structure directly.
This energy is sent to a solar inverter (off grid or hybrid). The inverter is the brain of the system and uses the solar energy to run loads (appliances, lights, equipment, etc), charge up the battery bank and/or supply power to non-solar connected loads or feed power back into the grid (If allowed by your complex or municipality). The inverter also changes over automatically when load shedding happens to enable you to keep everything running from PV and battery power alone.
The energy stored in the battery bank (lithium or gel) is mostly used at night to run night loads. The batteries can also be used to supply power during power outages (load shedding) or on overcast days. When the battery bank is depleted the system automatically switches over and runs loads from the municipal/Eskom/grid power supply.
Various other components and consumables are used to put the system together and make it work effectively. These include: mounting structures, cabling, wiring, AC circuit breakers, DC circuit breakers, battery switch gear, trunking, conduit, etc.
Most solar inverters come with build in monitoring systems that can be accessed from an app or online portal.
An inverter is an electrical device that converts DC (direct current) electricity into AC (alternating current) electricity. DC electricity is typically generated by sources such as batteries, solar panels, and fuel cells, while AC electricity is the type of electricity that is typically supplied by utility companies and is used to power most household appliances.
Inverters work by taking in DC electricity and converting it into AC electricity through a process called inversion. This process is typically accomplished by using a device called an inverter circuit, which is made up of several electronic components such as diodes, transistors, and capacitors. The inverter circuit works by taking the DC electricity and converting it into a square wave, which is then converted into a sine wave through the use of a low-pass filter. The resulting sine wave is then the AC electricity that is output by the inverter.
Inverters come in a wide range of sizes and power ratings, and can be used for many different applications. They are commonly used in solar power systems to convert the DC electricity generated by solar panels into AC electricity that can be used to power household appliances. They are also used in vehicles to convert the DC electricity stored in the battery into AC electricity that can be used to power the vehicle's lights, radio, and other accessories.
Overall, an inverter is a device that allows you to use DC power source and convert it into AC power source to be used in most common electrical appliances and other devices that require AC power
A battery bank is a group of batteries that are connected together in a series or parallel configuration to provide an increased capacity or voltage. When connected to an inverter, the battery bank is used to store energy generated by a solar system or other sources, such as a generator. The inverter then converts the stored DC power from the battery bank into AC power, which can be used to power electrical devices and appliances.
When adding a solar system, the solar panels convert the energy from the sun into DC power, which is then sent to a charge controller. The charge controller regulates the amount of power going into the battery bank to ensure that the batteries are not overcharged. The stored energy in the battery bank can then be used to power devices and appliances during times when the solar panels are not producing enough energy, such as at night or on cloudy days.